June 25, 2024

Are you one of those people who can’t get enough of planning, analyzing and executing strategies in order to win? Do you find yourself completely absorbed in games like chess, poker or even real-time strategy games? If so, you’re not alone. Strategy games have been around for centuries, and they continue to be popular among gamers of all ages and backgrounds. But why is that? What is it about these games that makes them so addictive and enjoyable for some people? In this article, we’ll explore the reasons why some people enjoy playing strategy games, and what makes these games so compelling.

Quick Answer:
Some people enjoy playing strategy games because they provide a challenging and intellectually stimulating experience. These games often require players to think critically and make strategic decisions in order to achieve their goals. Additionally, many strategy games offer a high level of replayability, as players can experiment with different strategies and tactics in order to find the most effective approach. Finally, strategy games often offer a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction as players master difficult challenges and defeat opponents. Overall, strategy games offer a unique and engaging experience that appeals to many players.

What are strategy games?

Types of strategy games

Strategy games are a class of video games that require players to make decisions that have a direct impact on the outcome of the game. These games often involve planning and foresight, as players must anticipate the actions of their opponents and make strategic moves to achieve their objectives.

There are many different types of strategy games, each with their own unique gameplay mechanics and objectives. Some of the most popular types of strategy games include:

  • Real-time strategy (RTS) games: In these games, players must manage resources, build bases, and command armies in real-time battle scenarios. Examples include Warcraft III and Starcraft.
  • Turn-based strategy (TBS) games: In these games, players take turns making moves, and must plan ahead to anticipate their opponents’ moves. Examples include XCOM and Civilization.
  • Simulation strategy games: These games focus on simulating real-world scenarios, such as managing a city or running a business. Examples include SimCity and The Sims.
  • Tower defense games: In these games, players must defend against waves of enemies by strategically placing towers and other defenses. Examples include Plants vs. Zombies and Defense of the Ancients (DOTA).
  • Puzzle strategy games: These games combine strategy gameplay with puzzle-solving mechanics. Examples include Chess and Puzzle Quest.

Each type of strategy game offers a unique experience, and many players enjoy trying out different types of games to find their favorite. Whether it’s the challenge of outwitting opponents in real-time battles, the satisfaction of building and managing a thriving city, or the thrill of strategically defending against waves of enemies, there’s a strategy game out there for everyone.

Popular strategy games

There are a variety of strategy games that have gained popularity among gamers worldwide. Some of the most popular strategy games include:

  • Civilization series: The Civilization series is a turn-based strategy game that allows players to build and manage their own civilization from the ancient times to the modern era. The game involves managing resources, building cities, researching technologies, and engaging in diplomacy and warfare with other civilizations.
  • Starcraft: Starcraft is a real-time strategy game that involves players building and managing their own base, gathering resources, and building an army to defeat their opponents. The game has a strong competitive scene and is popular in South Korea.
  • Age of Empires: Age of Empires is a real-time strategy game that allows players to build and manage their own civilization from the ancient times to the middle ages. The game involves gathering resources, building structures, and training armies to defeat opponents.
  • Warcraft III: Warcraft III is a real-time strategy game that takes place in the Warcraft universe. The game involves building and managing a base, gathering resources, and building an army to defeat opponents. The game has a strong esports scene and is popular in South Korea.
  • XCOM series: The XCOM series is a turn-based strategy game that involves players managing a team of soldiers and fighting aliens. The game has a strong focus on tactics and strategy, and players must carefully consider each move in order to succeed.

These are just a few examples of the many popular strategy games available. Whether you prefer turn-based or real-time gameplay, there is a strategy game out there for everyone.

The appeal of strategy games

Key takeaway: Strategy games offer a cognitive challenge, build and manage resources, offer a sense of accomplishment, and provide opportunities for social interaction and competition. Playing strategy games can improve problem-solving and decision-making skills, patience and perseverance, and adaptability. The future of strategy games looks bright, with advancements in technology, new genres and gameplay styles, and growing popularity and global impact. Strategy games are also being used in education and professional settings to improve critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Challenging the mind

One of the primary reasons why some individuals enjoy playing strategy games is that they provide a cognitive challenge. These games require players to engage in critical thinking, problem-solving, and decision-making, all of which contribute to mental stimulation.

Problem-solving skills

Strategy games often involve complex situations that require players to devise creative solutions to overcome obstacles. This process helps to develop problem-solving skills, which can be beneficial in real-life situations. Players must analyze the game environment, assess their resources, and evaluate potential outcomes to determine the best course of action.

Decision-making abilities

Another aspect of strategy games that enhances mental stimulation is the requirement to make important decisions. Players must weigh the pros and cons of various options and consider the potential consequences of their choices. This process helps to improve decision-making abilities, as players learn to think critically and make informed decisions.

Adaptability and flexibility

Strategy games often involve changing circumstances and unexpected events, requiring players to adapt and adjust their strategies accordingly. This element of unpredictability promotes adaptability and flexibility, as players must be prepared to modify their plans and respond to new challenges.

Memory and attention

Strategy games may also enhance memory and attention skills. Players must remember previous events, such as past moves or resources used, to inform their current decisions. Additionally, they must pay close attention to the game environment, scanning for potential threats or opportunities.

Social interaction

Lastly, strategy games can also foster social interaction, as many games are designed for multiplayer experiences. Players must collaborate, negotiate, and compete with others, which can improve communication and teamwork skills.

Developing problem-solving skills

One of the primary reasons people enjoy playing strategy games is that they offer an opportunity to develop problem-solving skills. Strategy games often require players to think critically and creatively to overcome challenges and achieve objectives.

  • Enhancing cognitive abilities: Strategy games can improve cognitive abilities such as memory, attention, and processing speed. These games often involve complex decision-making processes and require players to keep track of multiple variables simultaneously. As a result, players develop their ability to process information quickly and make informed decisions.
  • Developing spatial reasoning: Strategy games that involve maps and terrain can help players develop spatial reasoning skills. These games require players to visualize the battlefield and plan their movements accordingly. As players become more adept at strategy games, they can learn to think several moves ahead and anticipate potential outcomes.
  • Improving adaptability: Strategy games often require players to adapt to changing circumstances. Players must be able to think on their feet and adjust their strategies accordingly. This adaptability can translate to real-life situations, where players may need to think quickly and adjust their plans in response to unexpected events.
  • Encouraging strategic thinking: Strategy games can encourage strategic thinking by requiring players to consider multiple options and potential outcomes. Players must weigh the pros and cons of each decision and choose the best course of action based on their goals. This process can help players develop a strategic mindset that can be applied to other areas of life.

Overall, playing strategy games can provide a fun and engaging way to develop problem-solving skills. By challenging players to think critically and creatively, these games can help players become better problem-solvers in both gaming and real-life situations.

Experiencing a sense of accomplishment

Playing strategy games can provide a sense of accomplishment to players, as they navigate complex situations and overcome challenges. This feeling of accomplishment can arise from several factors, including:

  • Problem-solving: Strategy games often require players to think critically and creatively to overcome obstacles and achieve their goals. Successfully solving a problem or overcoming a difficult challenge can provide a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction.
  • Mastery of complex systems: Strategy games often have intricate systems and mechanics that players must learn and master in order to be successful. As players become more proficient in understanding and utilizing these systems, they may feel a sense of accomplishment in their growing mastery.
  • Achieving objectives: Many strategy games have specific objectives that players must work towards in order to win. Achieving these objectives can provide a sense of accomplishment, whether it’s winning a battle, building a thriving civilization, or completing a challenging campaign.
  • Social interaction: Strategy games often involve social interaction, whether it’s competing against other players online or working together with friends to achieve a common goal. Successfully collaborating or competing with others can provide a sense of accomplishment and contribute to a sense of community among players.

Overall, the sense of accomplishment that comes from playing strategy games can be a significant factor in their appeal. Whether it’s mastering complex systems, achieving objectives, or interacting with others, strategy games can provide a sense of achievement and satisfaction that can be highly rewarding for players.

Building and managing resources

One of the key aspects of strategy games that make them appealing to some players is the ability to build and manage resources. This can take many forms, such as gathering raw materials to construct buildings or amassing an army to conquer territory. In some games, players must carefully balance the production and allocation of resources in order to achieve their goals, while in others, they may be able to simply gather as much as they can and use it to overwhelm their opponents.

Regardless of the specific mechanics, the act of building and managing resources can be highly satisfying for many players. It allows them to create and shape their own virtual world, and to see the fruits of their labor as they build up their empire or army. This sense of accomplishment and progress can be highly addictive, leading players to keep coming back for more.

Furthermore, the act of building and managing resources can also be a source of strategic depth in a game. Players must consider not only how to acquire and use their own resources, but also how to deny their opponents access to the resources they need. This can lead to complex, interwoven strategies as players jockey for position and try to gain an advantage over their rivals.

Overall, the ability to build and manage resources is just one of the many factors that contribute to the appeal of strategy games. Whether players enjoy the sense of accomplishment that comes from creating and growing their own virtual world, or the strategic depth that comes from managing resources and denying opponents access to them, there is something for everyone in this genre.

Social interaction and competition

Playing strategy games can be a highly engaging and enjoyable experience for many people, and one of the main reasons for this is the social interaction and competition that these games offer. Strategy games often involve multiplayer modes, where players can compete against each other in real-time, and collaborate to achieve a common goal.

  • Interacting with other players: Strategy games provide an opportunity for players to interact with others in a structured and competitive environment. This can be especially appealing for those who enjoy the social aspects of gaming, but may not necessarily enjoy more casual or solo gameplay experiences.
  • Developing strategic thinking skills: Strategy games require players to think critically and strategically in order to succeed. This can be a highly rewarding experience for many players, as it challenges them to develop their problem-solving and decision-making skills.
  • Experiencing a sense of accomplishment: Winning a strategy game can be a highly rewarding experience, as it requires a significant amount of skill and strategy to emerge victorious. This can create a sense of accomplishment and satisfaction for players, which can be highly motivating and enjoyable.
  • Learning from mistakes: Losing a strategy game can also be a valuable learning experience, as it allows players to identify areas where they need to improve and adjust their strategies accordingly. This can be a highly engaging and rewarding process, as it allows players to continually challenge themselves and improve their skills over time.

Overall, the social interaction and competition offered by strategy games can be a major draw for many players, as it provides a fun and engaging way to connect with others and develop valuable skills. Whether playing against friends or strangers online, strategy games offer a unique and rewarding gaming experience that can be highly enjoyable for those who enjoy a challenge.

Understanding the motivation behind playing strategy games

Psychological factors

  • Problem-solving and cognitive stimulation: Strategy games provide an engaging and challenging environment that requires players to employ critical thinking and problem-solving skills. These games often involve multiple layers of complexity, requiring players to make strategic decisions based on limited information and resource management. By overcoming these challenges, players experience a sense of accomplishment and cognitive stimulation.
  • Decision-making and control: Strategy games allow players to exert control over a virtual world, making decisions that impact the outcome of the game. This sense of agency and control can be appealing to individuals who enjoy the process of shaping and influencing an environment. This control extends to decision-making processes, as players must weigh the consequences of their actions and anticipate potential outcomes.
  • Competition and social interaction: Strategy games often facilitate competition, either against artificial intelligence or other players. The social aspect of gaming can be a significant motivator for some individuals, as it provides an opportunity to engage with others in a shared experience. Winning and losing can trigger a range of emotions, further enhancing the experience and encouraging continued play.
  • Escape and immersion: Strategy games can offer an escape from reality, allowing players to immerse themselves in a virtual world where they can explore, strategize, and test their abilities. This form of escapism can be appealing to individuals seeking relief from stress or looking to disengage from everyday responsibilities. The engrossing nature of strategy games can create a sense of flow, where players lose track of time and become fully absorbed in the experience.
  • Learning and adaptation: Strategy games often require players to learn new mechanics, strategies, and tactics. This process of learning and adaptation can be rewarding in itself, as players expand their knowledge and skills. The continuous evolution of gameplay and strategies keeps the experience fresh and engaging, encouraging ongoing participation.
  • Personal growth and self-expression: Strategy games can provide an avenue for personal growth and self-expression. Players can develop their problem-solving abilities, strategic thinking, and decision-making skills, which can translate to real-life situations. Additionally, some players may use strategy games as a platform for self-expression, creating unique strategies or customizing game elements to reflect their individuality.

Overall, psychological factors play a significant role in the enjoyment of strategy games. These factors encompass the cognitive stimulation, decision-making, social interaction, escape, learning, and personal growth aspects of gaming, which contribute to the engaging and rewarding experience that strategy games offer.

Social and cultural influences

The role of social interaction in strategy games

One of the primary reasons people enjoy playing strategy games is the opportunity to engage in social interaction. Many strategy games, such as board games or online multiplayer games, require players to collaborate, negotiate, and compete with one another. This social interaction can be a significant motivator for players, as it allows them to connect with others and build relationships.

The influence of cultural context on strategy games

The cultural context in which strategy games are played can also influence the enjoyment that players derive from them. For example, in some cultures, strategy games are seen as a way to hone cognitive skills and prepare for future challenges. In these cultures, playing strategy games may be viewed as a serious undertaking that requires focus and dedication. In other cultures, strategy games may be seen as a form of entertainment or leisure activity, and players may approach them with a more casual mindset.

The impact of media representations of strategy games

Media representations of strategy games can also play a role in shaping players’ experiences and enjoyment of these games. For example, popular movies and television shows often depict strategy games as a way for characters to outsmart their opponents and achieve success. These representations can create a sense of excitement and glamour around strategy games, leading some players to view them as a desirable activity.

Overall, social and cultural influences can have a significant impact on why some people enjoy playing strategy games. These influences can shape players’ motivations, expectations, and experiences with strategy games, and can ultimately contribute to their enjoyment of these games.

Strategy games and personal growth

Improving cognitive abilities

  • Strategy games require players to make decisions and develop plans in order to achieve objectives, which can help improve cognitive abilities such as problem-solving, critical thinking, and strategic planning.
  • These games often involve multiple variables and dynamic environments, which can challenge players to think flexibly and adapt to changing circumstances.
  • Playing strategy games can also enhance memory function, as players must recall past events and decisions in order to make informed choices in the present.
  • Research has shown that playing strategy games can lead to improvements in working memory, attention, and inhibitory control, which are important cognitive skills for success in a variety of domains.
  • However, it is important to note that while strategy games can have cognitive benefits, they are not a substitute for a well-rounded education or a comprehensive brain training program.

Developing patience and perseverance

Playing strategy games can be an effective way to develop patience and perseverance. These skills are essential for success in many areas of life, including personal and professional pursuits.

One of the key aspects of strategy games is that they often require players to think carefully and plan their moves in advance. This can help players develop their ability to think critically and analytically, which can be applied to real-life situations. Additionally, strategy games often involve making decisions under pressure, which can help players build their resilience and ability to handle difficult situations.

Moreover, strategy games often require players to persevere through challenging situations and setbacks. Players may need to retry levels or battles multiple times before they are successful, which can help build their persistence and determination. This can be particularly beneficial for individuals who struggle with giving up easily or becoming discouraged by obstacles.

In addition to these benefits, playing strategy games can also be a fun and engaging way to develop patience and perseverance. Many strategy games offer a variety of challenges and goals to work towards, which can help keep players motivated and interested in the game. Overall, playing strategy games can be a valuable tool for developing important life skills while also providing a enjoyable and engaging experience.

Learning to manage stress

Playing strategy games can be an effective way for individuals to learn how to manage stress. Strategy games require players to think critically and make strategic decisions, which can help individuals develop problem-solving skills and improve their ability to think logically. Additionally, the fast-paced and competitive nature of many strategy games can help players stay focused and concentrate, which can be beneficial for individuals who struggle with anxiety or stress.

Moreover, playing strategy games can also help individuals develop patience and persistence, as these games often require players to think and plan ahead, and to make adjustments to their strategies as needed. This can help individuals learn to manage their emotions and to persevere through challenging situations, which can be beneficial in many areas of life.

In addition, strategy games can also provide a sense of accomplishment and achievement, which can boost self-esteem and confidence. As players progress through the game and achieve their goals, they may feel a sense of pride and satisfaction, which can help them build resilience and cope with stress in real-life situations.

Overall, playing strategy games can be a valuable tool for individuals looking to improve their ability to manage stress and anxiety. By providing a challenging and engaging environment, strategy games can help players develop critical thinking skills, patience, persistence, and resilience, all of which can be applied to real-life situations and help individuals cope with stress more effectively.

Cultivating critical thinking and decision-making skills

  • Improving cognitive abilities through strategic gameplay
    • Strategy games require players to analyze complex situations, anticipate potential outcomes, and make well-informed decisions. This process engages various cognitive functions, including memory, attention, and problem-solving skills.
    • As players progress through levels or missions, they face increasingly challenging scenarios that demand more advanced cognitive skills. This continuous mental stimulation can contribute to long-term cognitive development and improved brain function.
  • Developing adaptability and flexibility
    • Strategy games often involve unpredictable events and shifting circumstances, forcing players to adapt their plans and decision-making processes. This environment fosters adaptability and flexibility, as players learn to respond effectively to unexpected challenges and adversity.
    • By embracing these qualities, individuals can become more resilient in real-life situations, where they must navigate uncertain and dynamic environments.
  • Enhancing social and emotional intelligence
    • Strategy games frequently involve multiplayer modes, where players interact with others in a competitive or cooperative setting. These interactions can help individuals develop social and emotional intelligence by promoting empathy, communication, and collaboration.
    • Understanding the motivations, behaviors, and emotions of others is crucial for successful strategic gameplay. These insights can translate into real-life situations, where individuals must navigate complex social dynamics and relationships.
  • Learning from failure and refining strategies
    • Strategy games often involve trial and error, where players make mistakes and learn from them. This iterative process helps individuals develop a growth mindset, where they view failure as an opportunity for learning and improvement.
    • By analyzing their decisions and outcomes, players can refine their strategies and make better choices in future gameplay. This approach to learning from failure can also be applied to real-life situations, where individuals can develop resilience and adaptability in the face of setbacks.

The future of strategy games

Advancements in technology

The future of strategy games is shaped by the constant advancements in technology. As technology continues to evolve, it is likely that strategy games will become even more immersive and engaging for players. Some potential advancements in technology that could impact the future of strategy games include:

  • Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) technologies: VR and AR technologies have the potential to significantly enhance the gaming experience for players. By allowing players to fully immerse themselves in the game world, these technologies could make strategy games more engaging and realistic.
  • Artificial intelligence (AI): AI could be used to create more intelligent and challenging opponents for players. This could make strategy games more dynamic and challenging, as players would need to adapt to the actions of their opponents in real-time.
  • Cloud gaming: Cloud gaming technology has the potential to make strategy games more accessible to players. By allowing players to access games on a variety of devices, cloud gaming could make it easier for people to play strategy games from anywhere.
  • 5G networks: As 5G networks become more widespread, they could potentially enhance the gaming experience for players. With faster speeds and lower latency, 5G could make online multiplayer games, including strategy games, more seamless and responsive.

Overall, the future of strategy games is likely to be shaped by the ongoing advancements in technology. As technology continues to evolve, it is likely that strategy games will become even more engaging and immersive for players.

New genres and gameplay styles

Strategy games have evolved significantly over the years, and new genres and gameplay styles continue to emerge. One of the most significant developments in recent years has been the rise of mobile strategy games. These games are designed to be played on smartphones and tablets, and they offer a unique gaming experience that is both engaging and convenient.

Another notable development in the world of strategy games is the rise of multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) games. These games are designed to be played online with other players, and they require a high level of strategic thinking and teamwork. MOBA games have become incredibly popular in recent years, and they continue to grow in popularity as more and more players discover their unique appeal.

In addition to these new genres, strategy games are also becoming more complex and sophisticated. Many strategy games now feature complex economic systems, political intrigue, and dynamic environments that change over time. These elements add an extra layer of depth and complexity to the gameplay, making strategy games more challenging and rewarding than ever before.

Overall, the future of strategy games looks bright, with new genres and gameplay styles continuing to emerge. Whether you prefer traditional turn-based strategy games or the fast-paced action of MOBA games, there is something for everyone in the world of strategy gaming.

Growing popularity and global impact

Strategy games have seen a surge in popularity in recent years, with millions of players worldwide engaging in these immersive and challenging experiences. This growth can be attributed to several factors, including advancements in technology, the global accessibility of gaming platforms, and the increasing interest in gaming as a form of entertainment and social interaction.

One of the key drivers behind the growing popularity of strategy games is the technological advancements that have enabled more sophisticated and immersive gaming experiences. The rise of high-quality graphics, smooth gameplay, and realistic physics has allowed players to fully immerse themselves in the game world, enhancing the overall enjoyment and satisfaction derived from playing these games.

Another factor contributing to the global impact of strategy games is the widespread availability of gaming platforms and devices. With the proliferation of smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices, strategy games are now accessible to people in all corners of the globe, providing a convenient and engaging form of entertainment for millions of players.

Additionally, the increasing social acceptance of gaming as a legitimate form of entertainment and leisure activity has led to a greater interest in strategy games among both casual and dedicated players. As gaming continues to gain mainstream acceptance, strategy games are becoming more popular as a means of social interaction, allowing players to connect with others who share their interests and passions.

Overall, the growing popularity and global impact of strategy games can be attributed to a combination of technological advancements, widespread accessibility, and the increasing acceptance of gaming as a form of entertainment and social interaction. As these factors continue to shape the gaming landscape, it is likely that the popularity of strategy games will continue to grow and evolve, providing exciting new experiences for players around the world.

Strategy games in education and professional settings

As technology continues to advance, the use of strategy games in both education and professional settings is becoming increasingly popular. This integration of gaming into real-world contexts offers numerous benefits and opportunities for players to develop their critical thinking and problem-solving skills.

Education

In the educational setting, strategy games can be used as an effective teaching tool to engage students and enhance their learning experience. By incorporating strategy games into the curriculum, educators can help students develop important skills such as:

  • Decision-making: Playing strategy games requires players to make quick and informed decisions based on the current situation, encouraging students to think critically and logically.
  • Problem-solving: Strategy games often present complex challenges that require creative and innovative solutions, helping students develop their problem-solving abilities.
  • Collaboration: Many strategy games are designed for multiplayer experiences, fostering teamwork and cooperation among students, promoting social and communication skills.
  • Analysis: Strategy games involve analyzing situations, predicting outcomes, and adjusting strategies accordingly, helping students develop their analytical and strategic thinking skills.

Professional settings

In the professional world, strategy games are being used to train employees and improve their decision-making abilities in various industries. For example, businesses can use strategy games to teach employees about:

  • Market analysis: By simulating real-world business scenarios, strategy games can help employees understand the importance of market analysis and how to make informed decisions based on data.
  • Supply chain management: Strategy games can provide valuable insights into supply chain management, allowing employees to experience the challenges of managing resources, production, and distribution.
  • Risk assessment: In high-pressure situations, strategy games can help employees develop their risk assessment and mitigation skills, preparing them to make sound decisions under pressure.

In conclusion, the integration of strategy games in both education and professional settings has numerous benefits and offers a unique and engaging way for players to develop critical thinking and problem-solving skills. As technology continues to advance, it is likely that the use of strategy games in these contexts will become even more prevalent and widely adopted.

FAQs

1. What are strategy games?

Strategy games are a type of video game that require players to make strategic decisions in order to achieve a goal or overcome obstacles. These games often involve planning and resource management, and may include elements of puzzle-solving, tactics, and warfare.

2. Why do people enjoy playing strategy games?

There are many reasons why people enjoy playing strategy games. Some enjoy the challenge of using their problem-solving skills to come up with effective strategies, while others enjoy the sense of accomplishment that comes with successfully completing a difficult level or defeating a tough opponent. Some people also enjoy the social aspect of playing strategy games with friends or online communities.

3. Are strategy games only for experienced gamers?

No, strategy games can be enjoyed by people of all skill levels. Many strategy games include difficulty settings or tutorial modes that can help new players learn the basics of the game. Additionally, many strategy games are designed to be accessible to a wide range of players, with simple controls and intuitive gameplay mechanics.

4. What are some popular strategy games?

There are many popular strategy games, both old and new. Some classic strategy games include games like “Age of Empires” and “Civilization,” while more modern strategy games include games like “StarCraft II” and “League of Legends.” There are also many strategy games that are specific to certain platforms, such as “Fire Emblem” on Nintendo consoles and “XCOM” on PC.

5. Are strategy games good for developing real-world strategic thinking skills?

Yes, many people believe that strategy games can help develop real-world strategic thinking skills. These games often require players to consider multiple variables and make decisions based on incomplete information, which can help improve problem-solving and decision-making abilities. Additionally, many strategy games involve elements of teamwork and communication, which can be beneficial in real-world situations.

Types of Strategy Games | Video Essay

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